Circular representation of the 2,812,094-bp genome of N. europaea ATCC 19718. The outer two circles represent protein-encoding and structural-RNA genes, plus and minus strand (green, energy metabolism; red, DNA replication; magenta, transcription; yellow, translation; orange, amino acid metabolism; dark blue, carbohydrate metabolism; pale red, nucleotide metabolism; black, coenzyme metabolism; cyan, lipid metabolism; light blue, cellular processes; brown, general function; gray, hypothetical and conserved hypothetical genes; pale green, structural RNAs). The third circle indicates the major IS element families as follows: black, ISne1 family; orange, ISne2; red, ISne3; green, ISne4; blue, ISne5; cyan, ISne6; magenta, ISne7; yellow, ISne8. The fourth circle indicates siderophore-receptor genes (blue) and pseudogenes (red). The fifth circle indicates amo (red), hao (green), the duplicated genes for EF-Tu (blue), the 7.5-kb tandem duplication (magenta) and the 339- and 318-bp repeats (black). RNA structural genes are indicated in the sixth circle. The inner two circles are the GC bias and GC skew.