OSU
Background Science Knowledge Survey
#
Statement
Correct Answer
1
What is the difference between a tendon and a ligament?
A tendon connects muscle to bone.
A
ligament connects bone to bone.
2
In a twenty-year old human's body, what is the oldest possible age of one of the bones?
8 - 10 years
3
What is the most common physiological cause of hiccups?
4
What keeps the trachea ("windpipe") from collapsing when you are not taking in a breath of air?
5
Approximately how many cells are in the human body?
5-10 Trillion (also depends on body size)
6
What is the primary function of the gallbladder?
The gallbladder stores bile and releases it into the digestive system after a meal. Bile is produced by the liver.
7
Why does lack of sufficient oxygen during exercise lead to build-up of lactic acid in muscles?
Oxygen is required to break down lactic acid during aerobic respiration.
8
Besides regulating blood sugar levels, what else does the pancreas do?
The pancreas produces digestive enzymes. It also produces insulin and glucagon.
9
What are the two types of information about sound that receptor cells in the ears can send to the brain?
Frequency (how often something occurs) and the Amplitude (how loud or strong it is).
10
What causes "Mad Cow" disease (what is transmitted to cows and potentially to humans)?
11
What do doctors search for in a patient's urine as a possible indicator of anemia?
Ketones (proteins) and/or
Brownish-yellow color and/or
High pH.
12
During an infection, which cells in the human body increase dramatically in number?
13
Cancerous cells utilize blood vessels to spread throughout the body and for what other purpose?
To get nutrients and get rid of wastes. Cancer cells grow rapidly so they require lots of nutrients and produce lots of wastes.
14
What does the body release in large quantities in response to an allergen?
Histamine
15
When a memory forms, what is happening on the cellular level in the brain?
Synapses - connections between nerve cells (neurons).
16
Which infectious disease pathogen currently kills more humans globally each year than any other?
HIV
17
What disease was used to develop the first effective vaccine, the vaccine for smallpox?
Cow Pox
18
Besides restoring health, what is the other main role of modern medicine?
Maintaining Health (Preventing Disease)
19
What is an example of an autoimmune disease (disease in which the body attacks itself)?
20
Why do people keep getting the influenza (flu) vaccine each year?
Because the virus mutates, so there are new additional strains each year.